Principal leaders should establish PLC agendas and protocols so all of this can be accomplished during productive and efficient PLC time periods. Principals and members of the leadership team are the instructional leaders that need to be present at PLC meetings.
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They need to ensure that they lead and effectively support the full potential of the backward planning approach. During classroom observations, leaders also should assure that what was discussed in PLCs is implemented during the instructional period. If not, feedback, support and coaching also can assist teachers to enhance their practices. Lesson planning must be purposeful, intentional and lead to effective teaching. The second role a teacher assumes is that of a facilitator. The third role of a teacher is to be a coach of student learning. As a coach, teachers provide ongoing feedback and encouragement, prompt students to self-reflect and assess themselves, and provide multiple opportunities for independent practice.
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If the teacher sees that students have not mastered the content to be learned, he or she employs corrective alternative teaching practices. Direct teaching, facilitating and coaching all become part of the lesson cycle through planning and implementing presentations, guided lessons and independent practice. All of the objectives and assessments need to be clarified by the teacher before and during the instructional processes so that the students understand what they are learning, what is expected of them and how they can achieve the goals set by the teacher.
They need to know how they will be assessed on what they will learn and how they will demonstrate what the teacher has taught them.
What Are 21st Century Skills?
This, in itself, can improve student performance. When curriculum and assessments are selected and instructional lessons are planned and implemented, it is important for leaders, teachers and students to understand different types of assessments that might be used.
Assessments can occur at various times for distinct purposes, and the teacher should use these assessments to strategically promote and reinforce authentic learning. Assessments of learning include summative assessments that are used to demonstrate student achievement at the end of a lesson or unit, a quarter of the year, the semester, or the full year as is done on the state test.
Assessments for learning happen during the learning process, and happen frequently and more than once during the lesson or unit.
Students know what they are to learn and do, and the teacher assesses them as this learning occurs and then redirects the learning as needed while giving students feedback. Assessment as learning enables students to reflect on their own learning processes. Through this metacognitive process, students understand their own learning and can then take action and ownership for future learning.
Thus, assessments are not only used at the end of the instructional cycle, they are to be used intentionally with the curriculum standards of what is to be learned. Curriculum standards integrated with assessments during the instructional process yield assessment results that are more likely to accurately portray the real evidence of student achievement. They need to have systems and structures in place that advance teaching teams to design and implement instruction, based on 21st century skills, developing reliable and valid assessments that cultivate lifelong learning.
August March It gives the assessment investigators more data to work with. These skills involve critical thinking, creativity, problem solving, communication and socio-economic skills. There are assessments already in existence such as the SimScientists program, which uses simulations to assess science learning.
What Are 21st Century Skills?
Challenges can arise when it comes to assessment design owing to how these skills are interrelated and complex. Since the skills are also generic and transferable, problems also arise when it comes to adding "domain-specific knowledge. Validating the assessments can also prove difficult owing to the various interpretations involved in the measurement process. A related challenge is in establishing the set of standards which can be accepted as evidence for whatever inferences we make related to the target construct," the report found.
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